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The First World War And Its Aftermath: The Shaping Of The Middle East
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Think of a map of World War I and chances are that map will be of Europe-but the First World War had just as heavy an impact on the Middle East, shaping the region into what we know it as today. This book gathers together leading scholars in the field to examine this impact, which is crucial to understanding the region's current problems and the rise of groups like the Islamic State. In addition to recounting the crucial international politics that drew fierce lines in the sands of the Middle East-a story of intrigue between the British, Russians, Ottomans, North Africans, Americans, and others-the contributors engage topics ranging from the war's effects on women, the experience of the Kurds, sectarianism, the evolution of Islamism, and the importance of prominent intellectuals like Ziya GA kalp and Michel 'Aflaq. They examine the dissolution of the Ottoman empire, the exploitation of notions of Islamic unity and pan-Arabism, the influences of Woodrow Wilson and American ideals on Middle East leaders, and likewise the influence of Vladimir Lenin's vision of a communist utopia. Altogether, they tell a story of promises made and promises broken, of the struggle between self-determination and international recognition, of centuries-old empires laying in ruin, and of the political poker of the twentieth century that carved up the region, separating communities into the artificial states we know today.

 

Contents


Introduction: the political transformation of the Middle East 1914–1923,
T.G. Fraser  

1. The rise of Egyptian nationalism and the perception of foreigners in Egypt 1914–1921, Amany Soliman  

2. The antecedents and implications of the so-called Anglo-Sanussi War 1915–1917, Jason Pack  

3. British intelligence and Arab nationalism: the origins of the modern Middle East, Steven Wagner  

4. The First World War and its legacy for women in Iraq, Noga Efrati  

5. From anti-imperial dissent to national consent: the First World War and the formation of a trans-sectarian national consciousness in Lebanon, Mark Farha

6. Historicising hunger: the famine in wartime Lebanon and Syria, Najwa al-Qattan  

7. The patriarch, the amir and the patriots: civilisation and self- determination at the Paris Peace Conference, Andrew Arsan  

8. A thoroughly modern Caliphate: could legitimate governance for the Middle East in the aftermath of the First World War have been found by looking within?, Louise Pyne-Jones  

9. From the Archduke to the Caliph: the Islamist evolution that led to ‘The Islamic State’, Aaron Y. Zelin  

10. Some reflections on whether the Mandates were a slow burning fuse for toxic sectarianism in Arab countries, John Mchugo  

11. Oil, state and society in Iran in the aftermath of the First World War, Kaveh Ehsani  

12. The new Arab intellectuals of the post-First World War period: the case of Taha Husayn, Bruno Ronfard  

13. A tale of two nationalists: parallelisms in the writings of Ziya Gökalp and Michel Aflaq, Michael Erdman  

14. Women, war and the foundations of the Turkish Republic: the vision of New Womanhood in Halide Edib Adıvar’s The Shirt of Flame (1922), Sevinç Elaman-Garner  

15. The limits of soft power: why Kurdish nationalism failed in the French Mandate of Syria, Laila McQuade and Nabil Al-Tikriti  

16. The other jihad: Enver Pasha, Bolsheviks, and politics of anticolonial Muslim nationalism during the Baku Congress 1920, Alp Yenen  

17. A point of order: a battle for autonomy in the First Legislative Council of Transjordan, Harrison Guthorn

18. Drawing the line: Calouste Gulbenkian and the Red Line Agreement of 1928, Jonathan Conlin  

 

T. G. Fraser is professor emeritus at Ulster University. A fellow of the Royal Historical Society, Royal Society of Arts, and the Royal Asiatic Society, he is the author of The Arab-Israeli Conflict and Chaim Weizmann: The Zionist Dream, the latter published by Haus. 

Contributors: Jonathan Conlin, Harrison Guthorn, Alp Yenen, Laila McQuade and Nabil Al-Tikriti, Michael Erdman, Bruno Ronfard,Amany Soliman, Jason Pack, Steven Wagner, Noga Efrati, Mark Farha, Najwa al-Qattan, Andrew Arsan, Aaron Y. Zelin, John Mchugo. 

 

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